Noun declension – Feminines
This post, as its title shows, is about the declension of the feminine nouns (it is a little bit long so read it with your responsibility) which is not so complicated like the masculine but there are still some issues to clarify. We have also in feminines two categories of nouns
- Ισοσύλλαβα (isosillava) , where belongs the most of them. Usually Greek feminine noun endings are mostly in -α , like η μητέρα, η καρδιά, η καρυδιά etc. or in -η, like η νίκη, η αλλαγή, η φήμη, η δίκη etc. These ones form their plurals in -ες (except the genitive which ends always in -ων).
- Ανισοσύλλαβα (anisosillava), where we encounter only a few nouns ending in -ού , like η αλεπού (the fox), η υπναρού (the female person who sleeps too much), η γλωσσού (the one with a big tongue ) e.t.c. These nouns form plural in -δες (except the genitive ).
Let’s examine each category separately.
- The one’s that have endings in -α , like the feminine noun η γλώσσα (language)
|η γλώσσα||της γλώσσας||την γλώσσα||γλώσσα|
|οι γλώσσες||των γλωσσών||τις γλώσσες||γλώσσες|
In the same declension category belong the nouns ημέρα, ώρα, ρίζα, χώρα, γυναίκα, μανούλα etc….Note that in Russian and Italian language the nouns endings in -a are also feminine. Perhaps this is a common feature of the Hindo-european languages, but this is a matter of comparative linguistics rather and out the scope of this post.
- Feminine nouns ending in -η , like η γραμμή (the line)
|η γραμμή||της γραμμής||τη γραμμή||γραμμή|
|οι γραμμές||των γραμμών||τις γραμμές||γραμμές|
In the same declension category we have the nouns η αλλαγή, η ψυχή, η βροχή, η δίκη, η πλώρη, η άνοιξη, η κούραση etc. Both categories above form the plural in -ες.
- Feminines with ancient declension forms ending in -η. These ones are different from the regular type mentioned before and have a double genitive in the singular , and mostly are words like η δύναμη (the power), η λέξη (word), η πράξη (action), η αίσθηση (the sense) etc …Let’s see how the word απόφαση (decision) is declined
|η απόφαση||της απόφασης, αποφάσεως||την απόφαση||απόφαση|
|οι αποφάσεις||των αποφάσεων||τις αποφάσεις||αποφάσεις|
Just note that between the two genitive types of singular the one ending in -ως is more official or formal. Scarcely used in everyday conversations. So, you can see that as useless information, which I had to refer to only for reasons of completeness.
- Feminines with ancient declension forms ending in -ω. These ones are feminine names and have only a singular declension …An example is the name Καλυψώ , declined as
|η Καλυψώ||της Καλυψώς||την Καλυψώ||Καλυψώ|
|η ηχώ||της ηχώς||την ηχώ||ηχώ|
Other feminine names of the same category are Ερατώ, Κρινιώ, Ηρώ, Λητώ, Ρηνιώ etc. Also the word ηχώ (echo) only in the singular …like when you scream in a well and the your scream comes back.
- The last category of ancient declension forms is these ending in -ος. Usually this is a masculine ending but it is also common for some feminines, which are declined like the word η είσοδος (entrance)
|η είσοδος||της εισόδου||την είσοδο||είσοδος|
|οι είσοδοι||των εισόδων||τις εισόδους||είσοδοι|
- Mentioned above , these nouns have the -ού endings. Word example : η παραμυθού (storyteller – do not forget that anisosyllava means that we have one more syllable in the plural)
|η παραμυθού||της παραμυθούς||την παραμυθού||παραμυθού|
|οι παραμυθούδες||των παραμυθούδων||τις παραμυθούδες||παραμυθούδες|
- There are , and this is the last, some anisosyllava ending in -α. They are just 3 the nouns η γιαγιά, η μαμά, η κυρά …
|η κυρά||της κυράς||την κυρά||κυρά|
|οι κυράδες||των κυράδων||τις κυράδες||κυράδες|
It is indeed the longest of the my posts on this blog. I hope you did not find it that tiring or something like hieroglyphics. Grammar is boring and I hate it myself. Though, since I took this path I have to finish all the declension of nouns on my next post about neuters. Hope it will be soon, surely sooner that the 1st July when I fly to Slovakia to participate in an Esperanto summer camp.